Gheorgheni (in Hungarian Gyergyószentmiklós, in German Niklasmarkt) is a town in Harghita county, Romania. It is the centre of the former Gheorgheni Chair (Szekler-Hungarian medieval administrative territorial unit). The Red Lake (Lacu Rosu) belongs to this town. The town lies 59 km away from Miercurea Ciuc, the capital of the county, in the eastern side of the Giurgeu Depression, built on banks of the Békény brook. Regarding the etimology of the place name, Gheorgheni (Gyergyószentmiklós) is a topic of constant debate. The first half Gyergyó- from which word it might be derived from is unclear, a popular and sympathetic explanation is that in Hungarian: Gyere, (mert) jó! means: come, it's good, it's OK. Therefore taking the initial idea further: come here because it's a good place. The second part of comes from the name of the town's patron: Szent Miklós (Saint Nicholas).
Already in the 13th century a settlement on the banks of the György brook has existed. In 1607 it acquired the right to hold fairs. In 1637 a significant number of Armeninans settled here, a community which in 1687 joined the Roman Catholic Church leaving behind their former Orthodox faith. In 1716 the town was devastated by the Tatar invasion. In the year 1719 plague devastated the region. 1808 the town was ravaged by a fire, 700 houses burnt to ashes. By the 19th century it became the commercial centre of the region, after the '70s the first factories were built. Today's town center has got its looks by the end of the century. An important date in the life of the settlement was 1907 when it was lifted from the rank of commune to a township. The construction of the high school was commisioned in 1912 and finished in 1915. In 1910 out of 8905 inhabitants 8549 were Hungarian, 155 Romanian and 115 German. Until the Treaty of Trianon it was the centre of the Gheorgheni district in Ciuc county (after the territorial and administrative reorganisation carried out by the Habsburg the institutions of "chairs" were abolished).
The first church, a Gothic church was consecrated in 1498, but was rebuilt between 1756 and 1772 and in 1784 it was surrounded with stone walls.
The Armenian Catholic Church was built between 1730 and 1734 with reuse of a stone chapel from 1650. 1748 it was fortified by a curtain wall and towers; its parsonage was built in 1769.
The Calvinist Church was built between 1895 and 1899.
The Orthodox Church was built between 1929 and 1937.
On the 1087 metres height Ciobot mountain, northwards there is a Hungarian and an Armenian Catholic Chapel, named Saint Anna. The first chapel was built in the 13th century, later in the 18th century reconstructed in Baroque style, and the latter chapel was built after the plaque epidemic, in 1700s.
The Vertán-house, built between 1770-1778, once the command centre of the 1st Szekler regiment, today functions as the building of the Tarisznyás Márton museum.
On the cliff, at the junction of the Belkény and Várpatak creeks ruins of the Hiripné and Both forts are still visible. The date of construction remains unknown. During Rákoczi's rebellion it was destroyed by the Austrian armed forces, and never rebuilt. In 1933 in the centre of the fort a small chapel was built.
In the direction of St. Anna's chapel the Csiki-garden, a dendrological park with a territory of 16 hectares. It was planted by the initiative of Dr. Csiki Dénes.